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Hyperthyroidism symptoms, causes and preventions

Last updated on : 05 Mar, 2024

Read time : 5 min

What is Hyperthyroidism?

In hyperthyroidism, the thyroid gland creates and releases more hormones than the body needs. This illness is also known as hyperthyroidism. T3 and thyroxine are thyroid hormones (T4). Hyperthyroidism’s excess hormones can speed up metabolism. Metabolism is the process of transforming food into energy for your body.
When you have hyperthyroidism, your metabolism speeds up considerably. Your heart may race, you may feel nervous, and your appetite may grow. Heart rate, hunger, and anxiety are all hyperthyroidism symptoms. Hyperthyroidism is a serious condition that requires medical attention.

Hyperthyroidism Causes

Hyperthyroidism can be caused by several different medical conditions. The following are instances of medical conditions:
Hyperthyroidism symptoms can be caused by several factors. The most primary trigger of hyperthyroidism is Graves’ disease, an autoimmune disorder. Antibodies cause the thyroid to secrete an excessive amount of hormone. Graves’ illness affects women more than men. It usually runs in families, implying a genetic predisposition. If any of your relatives have had the disease, you should tell your doctor.

  • Surplus iodine, a key ingredient in T4 and T3.
  • Thyroiditis, or inflammation of the thyroid, causes T4 and T3 to release out of the thyroid gland.
  • Tumours of the ovaries or testes.
  • Thyroid or pituitary tumours.
  • Large amounts of tetraiodothyronine are taken through nutritional Supplements.

Hyperthyroidism Symptoms

There can be a wide range of hyperthyroidism symptoms that affect your entire body. Some of these hyperthyroidism symptoms may appear one at a time, while others may appear all at once. Hyperthyroidism can cause a variety of symptoms, such as a racing heart (palpitations).

  • Feeling nervous and jittery.
  • Loss of weight.
  • Increased Appetite.
  • More frequent bowel movements and diarrhoea.
  • Double Vision.
  • Skin with a thin texture.
  • Changes in menstruation
  • Excessive sweating and heat intolerance.
  • Insomnia or sleep disorders.
  • An enlarged thyroid gland causes neck swelling and enlargement of the neck (goitre).
  • Changes in hair texture and hair loss (brittle).
  • Graves’ disease is characterized by eye bulging.
  • Weakness of the muscles
  • Inability to Concentrate.
  • Itching
  • Breast development in Men

The following hyperthyroidism signs and symptoms should be seen by a doctor as soon as possible:

  • Dizziness
  • Rapid, irregular heart rate
  • Shortness of breath,
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Hyperthyroidism can cause atrial fibrillation, which can lead to strokes and congestive heart failure.

Diagnosis of Hyperthyroidism

A full medical history and physical exam are required for diagnosis. This can disclose hyperthyroidism symptoms like:

  • weight loss
  • rapid pulse
  • high BP
  • bulging eyes
  • thyroid enlargement

Other tests may be ordered to confirm your hyperthyroidism symptoms. These are:

  • Cholesterol test: Low cholesterol can indicate a high metabolic rate, which burns cholesterol quickly.
  • T4, free T4, T3: These tests detect thyroid hormone (T4 and T3) levels.
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone level test: To encourage the thyroid gland to generate hormones, TSH is produced by the pituitary gland. TSH should be lower when thyroid hormones are normal or high. A low TSH can be a symptom of hyperthyroidism.
  • Triglyceride test: Your triglycerides may be checked. Low triglycerides, like low cholesterol, can indicate a fast metabolism.
  • Thyroid scan: This lets your doctor check for thyroid overactivity. It can show if the thyroid as a whole or simply a section of it is overactive.
  • Ultrasound: Ultrasound can measure the thyroid gland’s size and any masses within it. Ultrasounds can also tell doctors if a tumour is solid or cystic.
  • CT or MRI Scan: A CT or MRI can detect a pituitary tumour causing the disease.

Hyperthyroidism Treatment

  1. Medication: Antithyroid drugs, like methimazole (Tapazole), prevent the thyroid from producing hormones. They’re a common form of hyperthyroidism treatment.
  2. Dry mouth, dry eyes, sore throat, and taste changes are all common side effects. To prevent the spread of radiation to others, precautions may be required for a short time after hyperthyroidism treatment.
  3. Radioactive Iodine: Ingested orally, radioactive iodine is assimilated by overactive thyroid cells. Over a few weeks, the radioactive iodine damages these cells, causing your thyroid to reduce in size and thyroid hormone thresholds to drop. This usually results in permanent thyroid damage, which cures hyperthyroidism. To resume normal hormone levels, most patients who receive this hyperthyroidism treatment must take thyroid hormone medication for the rest of their lives.
  4. Surgery: Surgery may be used to remove part or all of your thyroid gland. To avoid hypothyroidism, you’ll need to take thyroid hormone supplements. Hypothyroidism occurs when your thyroid is underactive and secretes too little hormone. Beta-blockers, such as propranolol, can also help you manage your fast heart rate, sweating, anxiety, and high blood pressure. This hyperthyroidism treatment is well received by the majority of people.

Is it possible to prevent hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism symptoms are often unavoidable. It can be passed down through the generations (Graves’ disease) or manifest itself when your body produces more thyroid hormone (during or after pregnancy). If you or someone in your family has Graves’ disease, talk to your doctor about getting screened.

What can you do to alleviate hyperthyroidism symptoms?

It’s essential to eat a healthy diet rich in calcium and sodium, especially if you want to avoid hyperthyroidism. Speak to a doctor to develop healthy dietary, nutritional booster, and workout guidelines.
Hyperthyroidism can also weaken and thin your bones, which can lead to osteoporosis. Vitamin D and calcium supplements can help strengthen your bones during and after hyperthyroidism treatment. Your doctor can advise you on how much vitamin D and calcium you should take daily.

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Disclaimer

Our healthcare experts have carefully reviewed and compiled the information presented here to ensure accuracy and trustworthiness. It is important to note that this information serves as a general overview of the topic and is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to diagnose, prevent, or cure any health problem. This page does not establish a doctor-patient relationship, nor does it replace the advice or consultation of a registered medical practitioner. We recommend seeking guidance from your registered medical practitioner for any questions or concerns regarding your medical condition.

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