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Premenstrual syndrome overview and its treatment

Last updated on : 18 Mar, 2024

Read time : 5 min

What is (PMS) Premenstrual syndrome?

PMS, or Premenstrual Syndrome, is a group of physical, emotional, and behavioural changes that take place during the last few days of a woman’s menstrual cycle, usually a week or two days before her period.

Different women have different signs that their period is arriving. Some women feel no pain in the days before their periods, except for slightly sore breasts or a desire for sweets. But many women go through changes in their bodies, like sore breasts, bloating, and lack of energy. They also go through changes in their behaviour and emotions, like extreme mood swings, irritability, and periods of sadness.

PMS is a part of a woman’s menstrual cycle, just like her period. Most PMS symptoms only last a few days and go away when your period starts. Make changes to your lifestyle or consult a doctor if you want to lessen or deal with premenstrual syndrome symptoms or signs.

PMS symptoms

PMS, or Premenstrual syndrome, can affect a long set of symptoms and signs, but most women only have a few of them. When it comes to PMS, here are a few things to keep a look out just for:

Signs and symptoms of how a person feels and acts in PMS:

  • Stress or tension
  • Sad state of mind
  • Cried for a short period of time
  • Mood swings and anger or irritation
  • Changes in hunger and cravings for food
  • Can’t get to sleep? (insomnia)
  • Pull back from society
  • Not paying attention
  • Change in interest in sex

Physical symptoms and signs can happen such as:

  • Joint or muscle aching
  • Cerebral pain
  • Exhaustion
  • Due to oedema weight gain can happen
  • Stomach swelling
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Pimple burst
  • Constipation or diarrhoea may cause

Causes of (PMS) premenstrual syndrome

Even though it is considered that two out of every three women have some kind of PMS symptom, so nobody knows for sure what causes PMS. This may really occur due to the wide range of symptoms faced by different women. 

So that it is difficult to diagnose it. PMS is caused mainly due to variations in cyclic hormones during your menstrual cycle. The contact between estrogen, progesterone, and serotonin, a chemical obtained by the brain responsible for your mood states, is also considered to be a contributing factor.

Some other things, like smoking, stress, drinking alcohol, not getting much sleep, depression, etc., can also make PMS severe, but they do not cause it.

Women who have other health problems may find that their problems get worse before they have their period. When the period does not come asthma, allergies, migraine and headaches are the common health problems which cause to women.

Treatment for PMS premenstrual syndrome

PMS can be treated in different ways, depending on the person’s symptoms. People can deal with PMS symptoms by taking medicine, changing their diet, working out, taking care of themselves, and making other changes to their lives.

1. Take medications 

Taking over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medicines can help ease painful symptoms like headaches and stomach problems.

Some of the medicines are taken to treat PMS are:

  • Painkillers, like acetaminophen, can help with headaches, muscle pain, and cramps.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can make cramps, headaches, and muscle aches less painful.
  • Diuretics can help relieve gas and pain in the breasts.

If a person’s PMS symptoms are really terrible, a doctor may suggest that they start taking hormone levels or birth control pills to reduce the pain. The level of estrogen and progesterone in the body is changed by these drugs.

Talk to a doctor if your PMS is very bad. They might give you medicine to help with depression, anxiety, or other feelings.

2. Try some mindfulness of exercises

Stress management and relaxation exercises, such as breathing exercises or meditation, can help women with PMS get their emotions back in balance.

Some other examples of ways to deal with stress and relax are:

  • Yoga
  • Tai chi
  • Stretching
  • Take a shower
  • Walking
  • Talk with a close friend or family member
  • Meeting with a counsellor or therapist who deals with mental health

3. Try some simple exercises

Mild regular physical activity increases estrogen and progesterone levels, which may help reduce PMS symptoms.

It has been known that aerobic exercise for 1.5 hours a week helped with the following physical PMS symptoms:

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhoea or constipation
  • Swelling of breast
  • Bloating
  • Flushing
  • Increased hunger

So, do some basic exercise to reduce the pain of PMS symptoms.

4. Ease the pain of bloating

When a person consumed an excess of food they may feel heavy and tired. People can reduce bloating which has been caused by PMS, so here are some examples are included to reduce it:

  • Salty foods shouldn’t be eaten.
  • Bananas, which are high in potassium, can help.
  • Drinking enough water
  • Doing gentle exercise

5. Take some nutritional food

If you make some changes to your diet, you may be able to ease mild to moderate PMS symptoms. Here are some examples of nutrients that might help a woman deal with her PMS symptoms:

  • Magnesium might be able to help with PMS-related migraines. Magnesium can be found in leafy green vegetables like kale and spinach.
  • Fatty acids might help ease the cramps that come with PMS. Fish, nuts, and green vegetables are all good sources.
  • Calcium helps bones stay strong and dense. Getting enough calcium also helps keep your mood, sleep, and food cravings in check. Adult women who took 500 milligrams of calcium every day for two months had much fewer PMS-related conditions like depression, anxiety, and water retention.

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Our healthcare experts have carefully reviewed and compiled the information presented here to ensure accuracy and trustworthiness. It is important to note that this information serves as a general overview of the topic and is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to diagnose, prevent, or cure any health problem. This page does not establish a doctor-patient relationship, nor does it replace the advice or consultation of a registered medical practitioner. We recommend seeking guidance from your registered medical practitioner for any questions or concerns regarding your medical condition.


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